Tuesday, March 01, 2005

2] Transculturalism of Total Quality Management

Transculturalism of Total Quality Management

ISLAMIZING A MANAGEMENT MODEL: THE CASE OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA

by Azly Abdul Rahman

Columbia University, New York

Introduction

Within the paradigm of transfer and borrowing, how and why does an idea gets culturalized and contextualized from one nation to another taking historical, ideological, religious, and cultural considerations in the process? This brief analytical paper will analyze that nature of the circularity of transfer of a model of educational innovation as it relates to curriculum reform. It will look at how a recipient nation’s ideology (with religion as one of the guiding principles) contextualizes the acculturating process of transfer. The case of the implementation of the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles in a Malaysian educational context will be the illustration. This essay in short attempts to answer the question in what way is the Total Quality Management model enculturated in Malaysia within the context and via its application as an educational restructuring program? The main framework of this essay will be derived from Steiner Khamsi’s (1997) idea of “culturalist” model of transfer. Literature review pertaining to the concept of total Quality Management and those related to the analysis will be reviewed. The relevance of this research lies in its tracing of the transnational flow of an idea and how the indigenization of it is engineered.

Review of Selected Literature

Steiner-Khamsi (1997) called upon those in the field of comparative education to ask question what has been transferred and why. She believed that this post-colonial perspective of educational research could help us move beyond normative discussions such as “system learning, system transfer and system equity.” (p. 26). She argued that in many cases of reform, what is being transferred are models which have been contested in the country it was first introduced and tested in the borrower country and reintroduced in the former. By looking at such circularity of transfer this she concluded that the political/ideological discourse can be discerned Steiner-Khamsi’s (1997) “culturalist” rather than consensual and dependency perspective in analyzing reforms and educational practice modeling is relevant in looking at the quality management movement in this case study. G. Michael Vavrek (1992) gave a historical account of the development of W. Edward’s Deming’s concept of quality management. Deming, a distinguished professor of management at Columbia University since 1985 (p. 2) originated the concept of quality in management comprising of a fourteen-point methodology with the underlying missions of improving organizations, particularly corporations, through continuously focusing on improvement. A statistician by training, Deming believed that corporations, albeit complex systems can be improved if people work smarter and management provides “insight into how to improve output and efficiency” (p. 3).

Vavrek (1992) wrote that Deming’s philosophy gained popularity in Japan after World War II, and his idea was not well received in the United States. It was only in the 1980s that American corporations responded to the success of Japanese corporations trained in the Dewing philosophy. Vavrek (1991) wrote of Deming’s success in that his idea was revered in Japan by the fact that “The annual Deming Prize, the most coveted industrial honor in the country” became a testimony of the Japanese commitment to qualify improvement. Schmidt and Finnigan (1993) wrote about the concept of total quality management based upon the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming. These authors discussed the basic ideas behind TQM which comprises the underlying assumptions such as the complexity of the modern organization, the modern organization for quality product and services, continuous improvement or guiding principle, working in teams, and openness and trust (pp. 4-8). Only through commitment by the different levels of management to the TQM principles can an organization succeed. Schmidt and Finnigan (1993) note that TQM is a synthesis of long-standing arrangement concepts “which in combination produce a way different way of operating an organization” (p. 29). They however admit that TQM “has worked in some organizations and failed in others” (p. 29). The post World War II transnational flow of Deming’s philosophy from America to Japan, which resulted in a Nipponization of an American management idea, can best be looked at in part, through the ages of Ritzer’s (1998) McDonaldization thesis. Ritzer (1998) talked about the phenomena of the franchisation of concepts ala McDonald’s fast food chain, in that elements such as rationality, calculability and efficiency are predominant. From fast food to credit cards and educational systems, McDonaldization has spread not only in America but also globally, carrying with it the discourse which perceive human behaviors as systems which can be rationalized, predicted and controlled—minds within the demands of productivity through efficiency.

Ritzer (1998) suggests the idea of stepping out of this McDonaldization mode of thinking occasionally in order to contain the further spread of this improved way of being. The complexity by which ideas flow transnationally is analyzed by Arjun Appadurai (1996) in which “a general theory of global cultural processes” (p. 45) is attempted to be derived at. Appadurai (1996) wrote of the fine dimensions by which the complex flow occurs within what he called “ethnoscape,” “financescape,” “mediascape”, “technoscape” and “ideascape” (p. 45). He asked one to move beyond looking at transfer of these dimensions; from conceptualizing them in mechanical terms such as sender-receiver to one based upon complexity and chaos theory. Appadurai (1996) believes that the conditions of postmodernity entail such and differences in transnational flow to be looked at not only through historical-materialistic, but more pertinently through culturalist and contextualized frame of analysis in order for a fractal pattern of such movements to emerge. In this context, similar to pattern of such movements to emerge. In this context, similar to Steiner-Khamsi’s (1997) advocacy for a “culturalist” perspective, the complexity of the flow of the TQM idea—from its American origin to its Nipponization and later its Americanization—can be traced when analysis is further made in case of Malaysia’s adoption of TQM model. Philip McMichael (1996) analyzes the discourse embedded in the development projects which have characterized the dependency syndrome of the Third World particularly within the age of corporate developmentalism.

Through an intriguing web of interlocking systems of production, the First World nations particularly the United States have been able to work in cohort with Third World leaders in a production scheme which transformed the global system into a huge, rationalized and efficient production house. Transnational banks, cheap pools of labor, authoritarian regimes, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank developmental projects are the main denominators of the continuing system of international distributive system of injustice which has evolved from the times of Marshall Plan and Bretton Woods. Particularly relevant to the context of TQM is the notion of transfer of discourse on rationality in the political-economic paradigm of developmentalism. In effect, the TQM model provides the leit motif of the McDonaldization of national economic system modeled after a sophisticated version of neo-classical economics. Transfer of rationalized model as such as TQM is made possible though education and training which take the missionary zeal of making the workforce literate enough to be part of the corporatist model of development. David Ashton and Francis Green (1996) wrote of the relationship between global capitalist formation and the primacy of education and training for skills-formation. Echoing the idea of human capital revolution, modern nation-states such as those in Southeast Asia becomes integrated into the world economy though educational and training models borrowed from business systems, and its attendant discourses. Skills training, in forms tailored from the shopfloor workers to top management is geared towards preparing nation states to be integrated into the global capitalist hut. Ashton and Green (1996) argued that the institutional and political context of skills formation training must become a necessary point analysis in our effort to frame the issue within a materialist conception of education and training systems.

Enculturizing TQM

In the foregoing brief review of selected literature, I have attempted to provide necessary linkages of concepts to contextualize and frame the discussion on the genealogy of the TQM model. Steiner Khamsi’s (1997) “culturalist” perspective presents the paradigm of looking at how the TQM idea, American in origin and contested and unpopular in its applicability in post-World War II corporate America, is fervently embraced in Japan. Vavrek’s (1992) account of the historical development of Deming’s philosophy of management also alludes to the notion that because the Japanese work ethos is ripe for the rapid embracement of the rational-efficient model of organizational control, the Nipponization of the TQM becomes a natural phenomena. It was not until the 1980s that the circularity of transfer became evident; American corporations began to see the success of an American management concept tested in Japan. How then does this circularity of transfer relate to the indigenization of the concept in a developing country such as Malaysia? Whilst TQM is American in origin, Malaysia can be said to have looked at and emulated the success of the Nipponized version of the concept. Post-Independence Malaysia was searching for a model of corporate management, which would propel the nation into rapid industrialization. Particularly in the 1980s during the early years of the Mahathir Administration, development policies pursued along capitalist lines carried the rhetoric called “The Look East Policy”; to particularly emulate Japan as a model of an advanced industrialized nation of the Far East which has been able to keep its cultural and spiritual tradition intact. A Nipponized TQM, among other models of organizational change, was adopted and enculturized to fit the demands of the Malaysian national ideology. Islamization, an ongoing process of hybridizing contending incoming ideologies relating to economic, political, and cultural development became a major frame of reference in any endeavor to borrow and adapt systems of social change. The 1980s onwards was a period of social, political, and cultural, and educational re-engineering which saw the emergence of concepts such as Islamic banking system, Islamic guidelines on broadcasting, Islamic-based curricular approach, and the compulsory teaching of the course Islamic civilization for first-year undergraduates in Malaysian universities.

It can be said that it was the beginning of a period of McDonalization of Islamic values, which continue to this day into the Islamization of the stock market and the financial trading system! Appadurai's’(1996) notion of "ideoscape” is applicable if we take into consideration the impact of the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the exporting of its ideology to Islamic nations worldwide. The Islamization of Malaysia can be analyzed as the nation’s creative reaction against any foreseeable Islamic extremist-type of political contestation against the multiracial ruling coalition party. Malaysia’s first university-based TQM institute was set up in 1991 at its first management university (Malaysia’s sixth government university 15 years of age). Having been a faculty member of this university for the last six years and having been familiar with the work of the TQM institute, I observed and analyzed its director’s reinterpretation and indeginization of the concept according to Islamic principles. Professor Zein-Yusof, a strong advocate of Islamization in management looked at the concept of the “quality person” as one who is Islamic in totality of his/her principles of living and being and who manages his/her organization based not only upon Malaysia’s Islamic-based national ideology, but also upon moral and spiritual values. TQM is indigenized as the managing of oneself as a moral social being as and as a God-fearing servant living by the grace of Allah. The Nipponized and the Americanized concept of quality, in this Malaysian interpretation is thus not alien to the total quality being if it helps one to diligently perform the daily prayers, give alms to the poor, fast thirty days in the month of Ramadhan, and perform the pilgrimage to Mecca.

Productivity and the drive for profits, and to be as rich as one can be is also in line with this Islamic conception of quality living. Islam, according to this advant garde interpretation calls upon its adherents to adopt modern concepts of management as such as TQM and breathe spiritual dimension into them. In fact, the idea of applying quality management principles has its goals in adding spiritual value to the business organizations so that higher productivity can be achieved which entails more alms (zakat) can be channeled to the poor and needy. The more zakat is disbursed, the faster poverty can be alleviated. The work of the TQM institute involved process consulting for corporate and governmental organizations particularly in the northern region of Malaysia. In 1997, after a year of pilot project work, the institute in collaboration with The Ministry of Education helped certify two government schools (primary and secondary) for the ISO 9000 certification. In the following year, the university’s library became the first college library in the world to be awarded such a certificate of management fitness.

Conclusion

The limitation of this essay does not permit an extended and in-depth discussion on the complexity of the indigenization as applied to the case of Malaysia. Suffice it is to however to note that the mission of the institute is to Islamize management practices by making persons, processes, and products “more Islamic” via the injecting of Islamic values into the otherwise “soul-less” framework of productive and rational management. Quality and perfection is interpreted as a demand in Islam and those who stray from this path will be made accountable in this world as well as in that of the hereafter. Islamic TQM begins with the self, extending into quality circles, contributing to the spiritual well beingness of the organization and spiraling into the productivity of the nation and beyond. Coming back to the question “in what way is the TQM model enculturized in Malaysia within the context and via its application as an educational restructuring program?”, the answer lies in its ideological reconceptualization as it responded to the value-free context of the original concept. It is that TQM has undergone an Islamic and Malaysianized facelift to be made presentable to the customers it is intended to serve. What has been transferred is culturalized so that its “habitus”, using Bourdieu’s (1994) term will be made relevant to those living in the nation-state governed by an Islamic-based national ideology. The dimension of the circularity of transfer lies in the fact that Deming’s philosophy was contested in the United States in the 1950s, popularized in Japan, rediscovered in the United States in the 1980s, and the Nipponized version was adopted in Malaysia and given an Islamic slant in the 1990s. With the beginning of Malaysia’s business involvement in Third World countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and with the stronger emphasis of Malaysia’s management practices to become more Islamic, would such hybridized concepts be then exported along with an equally hybridized discourse of developmentalism? Appaduari’s (1996) notion of disjunctures in the flow of ideas within the realm of ideoscape, using complexity and chaos theory a conceptual lens may perhaps be able to be used to predict what the ongoing outcome would be, as ideas continue to flow in circular into the next millenium.

Agenda for future research

Having provided concluding paragraphs as above, I now turn to the relevance of the question of circularity of transfer as agenda for future research. I have throughout this essay provided a non-judgmental perspective of the circularity of transfer of the TQM model so that this essay may serve its purpose as a descriptive-analytical expose drawing upon the issue of the genealogy of transfer and borrowing. Further agenda for research however should best not be limited to such a conceptual framework, particularly if one would choose Edward Said’s (1978) notion of politically-embedded discourse as a rallying point of analysis. The questions in the next paragraphs need to be framed. Can an Islamic TQM be another rationalizing agenda to create in Ritzer’s (1998) term, a “sneakerization” of a capitalist Weltanschauung? A postmodern reading of the question allures me to McMichael’s (1996) analysis of advanced capitalist formation which has integrated the world of nation-states, Islamic and all, into yet another advanced Center-periphery machinery of production. Is the Malaysianized or Islamized version American or Nipponized management model yet another palatable way to present post-Fordist thinking to those who think and speak in indigenous capitalist terms? In this age wherein language is power and information is commodity and currency, a postmodern/postcolonial approach to the study of such circularity of transfer and the value-neutrality of hybridization as such as the TQM model discussed, seem necessary.

To what extent is a model Islamic and to what extend is it cultural when one analyzes organizational structures erected in Islamic countries such as Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan—those which prides in its Islamic-ness—but yet still maintain domination and control regressive to the liberation of females and those of other ethnic groups? How much of the rationality, efficiency and calculability in the management practices used by some Islamic nation-states are used to build engines of mass destruction—all in the name of Islam? How can one maintain rationality and spirituality whilst at the same time sustain state-legitimated structural violence such as authoritarianism in governance? Another agenda for further research could also be in the manner transferred models of developmentalism are currently perceived in poverty-relegated Southeast Asia one year after its collapse triggered by the devaluation of the Thai baht. What dimension and degree of disenchantment towards Western-exported models of social, economic, and political development can we discern in the current call by some Asian leaders to search for a “New Bretton Woods”? Would contested models from the industrialized West still be transferred and borrowed by these nations although winds of change are blowing leaders off their throne—leaders who have been good indigenizors of concepts and who themselves have been well-paid global production managers of advanced capitalist states? These questions are among those worth exploring using postmodern research tools worth designing.

References

Appadurai, A. (1996). Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. In A. Appadurai (Ed.) Modernity at large. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ashton, D., & Greene, F. (1996). Education, training, and the global economy. Brookfield, Vermont: Edmund Elgar Publishing Company.

Bourdieu, P. (1994). Structures, habitus, power: Basis for a theory of symbolic power. In N. B. Dirks, G. Eley, S. B. Ortner (Eds.) Culture/Power/History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

McMichael, P. (1996). Development and social change: A global perspective. California: Pine Forge Press.

Ritzer, G. (1998). The Mcdonalization thesis. London: Sage Publications.

Said, E.W. (1978). Orientalism. New York : Vintage Books Edition.

Schmidt, W.H., Finnigan, J.P. (1993). TQM Manager: A practical guide for managing in a total quality organization. San Francisco: Josey Bass Publishers.

Steiner-Khamsi, G. (1997). Transferring education, displacing reforms. Comparative Education Review. in review.

Vavrek, G.M. (1992). An American leads the Japanese and the U.S. follows. In P. F. Fendt & G. M. Vavrek (Eds.), Quality improvement in continuing higher education and service organizations. Wales, U.K.: Edwin Mellen Press Ltd.

105 comments:

Research Writer said...

Many institutions limit access to their online information. Making this information available will be an asset to all.
Term Paper Writing

Anonymous said...

boost your computer performance , A computer program system that tests the Windows Registry and looks for dated and ill items.
Apps often create Registry entries for momentary data and pointers along with other files, but never erase them. Furthermore, http://www.registry1000.com/2010/05/05/registry-cleaner-%E2%80%93-boost-your-computer%E2%80%99s-performance/ , [url=boost your computer performance]http://www.registry1000.com/2010/05/05/registry-cleaner-%E2%80%93-boost-your-computer%E2%80%99s-performance/[/url] if files are by hand deleted from the user.
Registry entries may point to files that don't exist. A Registry cleaner software can ahtvniwxnjnjnjnnjaw engage in a arrangement of program tools or perhaps a stand-alone, boost your computer performance system

Anonymous said...

Our ensemble creates a subject birthday card on the principle of harmonious ' and pretty projects.
These projects are carried out by way of the cards the first team of unmistakable artists and designers in
the shop who are experts in every intelligibility of the word. They are also altogether supple, so you can
achieve very engaging dealing file card designs, depending on the individual needs of each client.
We do not own a masterful printing machines undertaking the highest je sais quoi of each own card.
Extensive quote of identification b docket allows you to meet the expectations of parallel with the most tough customers
from every conceivable industry. We make sure the language and service of mammoth quantities of enterprise
cards in the shortest credible time. In our what really happened, the highest attribute is the payment of the proposed
penalty and safe accommodation from people receiving and carrying not at home an pecking order in place of task cards.
With access to the services offered through our website, you can quickly and without undue
formalities state an organization for goods, judgement the outline and approved it and ordered some business
cards. Settle upon our coterie as a respectable business postcard is again a oath after success.
Greet
Merio [url=http://www.kalendarze.dogory.pl]Kalendarze[/url]

Anonymous said...

hi, does anyone know a nice website as a replacement for [url=http://neopets-cheats.us]Neopets Cheats[/url]?

Anonymous said...

Buy Neopoints to archive your highest target on Neopets.
Neopets is a precise wearying artifice to warrant Neopoints yourself in, it may appropriate months of hardwork principled to create 1,000,000 Neopoints!
[url=http://buyneopoints.org]Buy Neopoints[/url] and fall ill the ultimate Neopets cheats!

Neopets has tons of games you can play, and when you come by neopoints, it resolution net your savoir faire much bettert!
Essay us prohibited today and you won't repent it, Neopoints packages start from well-grounded $2.25!
Buy Neopoints

Anonymous said...

Thank you, that was extremely valuable and interesting...I will be back again to read more on this topic.

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing this link, but unfortunately it seems to be offline... Does anybody have a mirror or another source? Please answer to my post if you do!

I would appreciate if a staff member here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com could post it.

Thanks,
Mark

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing this link, but unfortunately it seems to be offline... Does anybody have a mirror or another source? Please reply to my post if you do!

I would appreciate if a staff member here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com could post it.

Thanks,
Alex

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing this link, but unfortunately it seems to be offline... Does anybody have a mirror or another source? Please reply to my post if you do!

I would appreciate if a staff member here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com could post it.

Thanks,
Jack

Anonymous said...

Thanks for sharing this link, but unfortunately it seems to be offline... Does anybody have a mirror or another source? Please reply to my post if you do!

I would appreciate if a staff member here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com could post it.

Thanks,
John

Anonymous said...

Hello,

I have a message for the webmaster/admin here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com.

Can I use some of the information from your post above if I give a backlink back to your site?

Thanks,
Mark

Anonymous said...

Hi:

I just registered on azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com.
I'm planning to take a look round a tiny bit and connect with fascinating individuals and discover a few ideas.


I'm hoping this doesn't find itself in the wrong area. Forgive me if it does.

--------------------

DARIO DUKE
Quality Control Inspector

Anonymous said...

I've on all occasions liked things like sand clocks, lava lamps, and the like to kind of just spend in days of yore staring at it as a cut of catharsis. In a opportunity, it helps me with meditation, to free lay stress and scarcely deem in the air nothing. That's why since I was a kid, a substitute alternatively of dolls and cars I've always collected more of such pieces like sand clocks, lava lamps, musical boxes etc. So I was most pleased when I base the[url=http://www.dealtoworld.com/goods-1260-2-Laser++LED+Light+Show+Laser+Top+Gyroscope+with+Music+Effects.html] 2-Laser + LED Spry Appear Laser Crown Gyroscope with Music Effects[/url] from DealtoWorld.com protection the Toys section. It's like a melodic belt, a spinning better, and a berate show all rolled into one. Which is prodigious relaxation! The gyroscope will concoct for around a minute. The laser enlightenment display with accompanying music makes this gyroscope a rather unique fiddle with that my friends have also been most amused with.

My dogs are also nice-looking eccentric about the laser gyroscope I got from DealtoWorld.com. They always attend the gyroscope as it spins, although at earliest they kept barking at the laser diverting dismiss accompany, and also because it produces music. But after they got used it, they've stopped barking but just maintain following the gyroscope whenever I start spinning it. Kids are also pretty amused by it. On occasion it's moral to maintain fun toys throughout the ancestry so that you can go away the diminutive on while the kids are being amused or playing with it while you open to get up foodstuffs or get changed. The gyroscope is inseparable such fool with with this purpose.

The gyroscope I bought from DealtoWorld.com has a dragon as a pattern on it, and produces a gegenschein exposition with red, obscene, and green colours. Steal a look at the pictures I've uploaded of the gyroscope with laser joyful show. The music produced from the gyroscope is not that expert but allowable enough to accommodate any redone visitor to the house. The gyroscope is red and negro, making it look particular imperturbable, and slightly arrogant with that dragon imprint.

The music luminescence plain gyroscope runs on 6 LR44 batteries, which are replaceable anyway. I've also used this gyroscope to their heels my girlfriend during our anniversary celebration. I did the cheesy thing of decorating the hotel elbow-room with roses and when I led her in, I started up the gyroscope as well so that the laser brighten register produces a ideal effect. I also had some battery operated candles so all the moonlight effects created a degree mawkish atmosphere. She loved it, past the going, to my relief. I also bought the candles from DealtoWorld.com. These days it seems to be my non-performance shopping locality in favour of all gifts and ideas in behalf of fancied occasions.

Since Christmas is coming, this laser lamp show gyroscope can possibly be a superb Christmas favour in behalf of the toddler or neutral the pet! Alternatively, the gyroscope can absolutely be a gracious reckoning to the established Christmas decorations. I can presume placing it adjoining the Christmas tree and perchance spinning it when guests succeed in the house. Looks like [url=http://www.dealtoworld.com]DealtoWorld.com[/url] is getting my business yet again!

Anonymous said...

Greetings,

Thanks for sharing this link - but unfortunately it seems to be down? Does anybody here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com have a mirror or another source?


Cheers,
Peter

Anonymous said...

Hey,

This is a inquiry for the webmaster/admin here at azlyrahman-papers.blogspot.com.

May I use part of the information from this blog post right above if I provide a link back to your site?

Thanks,
Alex

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.kamagrashop.pl]potencja[/url], inspect up on my site. If you are interested in guardian, get the drift [url=http://www.4uescort.de]huren[/url] or [url=http://www.escort4u.pl]ogloszenia towarzyskie[/url]

Order Anti-Depressants said...

You have a very good blog that the main thing a lot of interesting and useful!

Anonymous said...

Keep up the good work. general health Read a useful article about tramadol tramadol

Anonymous said...

buy zolpidem online zolpidem tartrate memory loss - zolpidem side effects men

Anonymous said...

buy diazepam online does diazepam 10 mg look like - can you buy diazepam spain

Anonymous said...

buy xanax no prescription buy xanax 2mg no prescription - long will 1mg xanax stay urine

Anonymous said...

zolpidem 10 mg much zolpidem ambien - zolpidem 12.5 mg

Anonymous said...

buy ativan online taking 6 ativan - ativan side effects blurred vision

Anonymous said...

buy diazepam without prescription can you buy diazepam turkey - diazepam 5mg effects

Anonymous said...

diazepam dosage for dogs diazepam krople 10mg - que es diazepam y para que sirve

Anonymous said...

buy diazepam buy valium online in the usa - what is diazepam 5mg tablet

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax for anxiety depression - xanax withdrawal anxiety

Anonymous said...

buy ativan how to buy lorazepam - ativan euphoria

Anonymous said...

buy diazepam diazepam drug indication - diazepam generic msj flashback

Anonymous said...

buy xanax 1mg xanax no prescription overnight delivery - xanax no prescription no membership

Anonymous said...

buy ambien online ambien cr dosage elderly - ambien side effects memory

Anonymous said...

ambien online purchase signs of ambien withdrawal - ambien tramadol drug interactions

Anonymous said...

buy somas online drug interactions soma benadryl - soma cube online game

Anonymous said...

buy zolpidem generic ambien online no prescription - ambien pill teva

Anonymous said...

buy valium online buy valium online no prescription uk - buy roche valium

Anonymous said...

buy ambien online is ambien safe with high blood pressure - ambien cr generic image

Anonymous said...

carisoprodol soma tabs medication - carisoprodol 350 mg generic

Anonymous said...

buy ambien online drug interactions between ambien xanax - ambien cr generic 12.5 mg

Anonymous said...

buy valium online where to buy valium online no prescription - buy valium online c.o.d

Anonymous said...

�?Players can wear nfl cheap jerseys in their training program to enhance their playing skills It's aswell not some allowance to attract a assertive amateur to stick about long-term It is played in many countries around the world[url=http://www.authenticnikeDolphinsshop.com]Reggie Bush Jersey[/url]
and football fans exist even in those countries[url=http://www.authenticnikeDolphinsshop.com]Reggie Bush Jersey[/url]
in which this game is not played at official level There is something about the Patriots and Thanksgiving day that makes for some fun NFL football betting
�?To this end[url=http://www.nikePackersnflshop.com]James Jones Jersey[/url]
event staff help the State Sports General Administration Tags: ergo baby[url=http://www.andrewluckjerseys.net]Andrew Luck blake Jersey[/url]
football[url=http://www.elimanningjersey.net]Eli Manning Authentic Jersey[/url]
sportsFirst Class Football Holidays To Be Gound At La Manga Club Football Centre This then owes into the mass production[url=http://www.wholesalejerseysgame.com]wholesale jerseys[/url]
being triggered off by the higher demands This NFL football betting matchup has huge potential if Houston can cover the 8 points

Anonymous said...

GB of RAM minimum[url=http://www.BrandonMarshallJersey.net]Brandon Marshall Jersey[/url]
and maximumYou might be actually aware about the present condition wherein the expense rates are increasing from time to timeFranco HarrisFranco Harris is known as one of the NFL's greatest running backs[url=http://www.CharlesTillmanJersey.net]www.CharlesTillmanJersey.net[/url]
but he is probably best known for one spectacular play Idling around town the M109R's strengths are well hidden by its custom inspired looks It is a well known fact that being happy helps combat stress and improves the state of mind Osteoarthritis and Cartilage OARS[url=http://www.BarrySandersJersey.com]Barry Sanders Jersey[/url]
Osteoarthritis Research Society : doi:
Justin Timberlake ? Timberlake is only this high on the list because he's Justin Fucking TimberlakeA small fact some people may not know about Brian Lee is that he is the younger brother of The Harris Twins[url=http://www.CharlesTillmanJersey.net]www.CharlesTillmanJersey.net[/url]
Ron and Don HarrisThe shots of AirSoft guns are much faster and they have the potential to damage the skin if hit at close rangeI thank you again for all the wonderful work you have done and wish you all the best for your future endeavorsbmp) no-repeat; padding: 20px; } div They are: Objectives Relationships ORT[url=http://www.CharlesTillmanJersey.net]Charles Tillman Womens Jersey[/url]
Prerequisites PRE[url=http://www.BobbyWagnerJersey.com]Bobby Wagner Authentic Jersey[/url]
and Completion Requirements CMP Watching these in digital quality on the big screen is just like ordering something straight from your TV[url=http://www.CharlesTillmanJersey.net]Charles Tillman Jersey[/url]
only the cost is so much lower

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment generic prednisone online - generic prednisolone http://www.ourdailybreadmarket.net/#generic-prednisolone

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment purchase ventolin online - ventolin online pharmacy http://www.ventolinforsaleonline.com/#ventolin-online-pharmacy

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment ventolin no prescription - ventolin online http://www.ventolinforsaleonline.com/#ventolin-online

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment prednisone cost - prednisone drug http://www.ourdailybreadmarket.net/#prednisone-drug

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment cheap ventolin - generic ventolin http://www.ventolinforsaleonline.com/#generic-ventolin

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment buy meridia online - buy sibutramine online http://www.meridiaordernow.com/#buy-sibutramine-online

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment buy soma without prescription - order soma http://www.emprendiendoideas.com/#order-soma

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment ativan online - buy ativan online http://www.ativanonlineoffer.com/#buy-ativan-online

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment order prednisolone - purchase prednisone http://www.ourdailybreadmarket.net/#purchase-prednisone

Anonymous said...

escaliFacerge discount buspar - generic buspar http://www.busparspecialoffer.com/

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment order acomplia - buy acomplia no prescription http://www.a6soft.com/#buy-acomplia-no-prescription

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment meridia diet pills online - buy reductil online http://www.meridiaordernow.com/#buy-reductil-online

Anonymous said...

Blogger: THE PAPERS OF AZLY RAHMAN - Post a Comment generic acomplia rimonabant - cheap acomplia diet pills http://www.a6soft.com/#cheap-acomplia-diet-pills

Anonymous said...

Medication Errors Presentation Slide Sets prednisone prednisolone - prednisone cost http://www.prednisone4sale.com/#prednisone-cost

Anonymous said...

New Antidiabetic Drugs prednisone price - prednisone sale http://www.prednisone4sale.com/#prednisone-sale

Anonymous said...

Hello, cost of propecia - buy propecia no prescription http://www.wheretobuymedsonline.com/propecia/

Anonymous said...

Montgomery County Canada Drugs buy acomplia no prescription - acomplia price http://www.buydiscountedisotretinoin.net/#acomplia-price

Anonymous said...

Movie Medicine acomplia weight loss - order acomplia online http://www.buydiscountedisotretinoin.net/#order-acomplia-online

Anonymous said...

Hello, cost of lipitor - atorvastatin price http://www.costoflipitoronline.net/#atorvastatin-price

Anonymous said...

Hello, discount cytotec - cytotec without rx http://www.cytotecforlessonline.net/#cytotec-without-rx

Anonymous said...

advitleva buy quetiapine online - buy cheap seroquel http://www.seroqueldiscounts.com/

Anonymous said...

Hello, generic cytotec online - cheap cytotec online no prescription http://www.cytotecforlessonline.net/#cheap-cytotec-online-no-prescription

Anonymous said...

advitleva premarin without prescription - buy premarin http://www.premarindiscount.com/

Anonymous said...

Medicine To Treat Depresion order topamax - buy topamax without prescription http://www.topamaxforless.com/

Anonymous said...

dalsCleax atomoxetine cost - atomoxetine without prescription http://www.stratterabestprice.com/#atomoxetine-without-prescription

Anonymous said...

Sports Medicine Journal zyprexa price - zyprexa sale http://www.perfectshutdown.com/, zyprexa without prescription

Anonymous said...

Montgomery Internal Medicine In Nj valium online - buy valium online http://www.samskitchenonline.com/, [url=http://www.samskitchenonline.com/]buy diazepam [/url]

Anonymous said...

2003 Quest Drug Testing Index where to buy diflucan - order fluconazole no prescription http://www.diflucansaleonline.net/#order-fluconazole-no-prescription , cheap diflucan

Anonymous said...

Alcohol In Homeopathic Medicines generic lexapro online - lexapro cost http://www.costoflexaproonline.net/#lexapro-cost , lexapro for sale

Anonymous said...

Monroe Chiropractic Alternative Medicine Center sibutramine without prescription - buy reductil http://www.meridiaonlineorder.net/#buy-reductil , [url=http://www.meridiaonlineorder.net/#buy-meridia-without-prescription ]buy meridia without prescription [/url]

Anonymous said...

1, order soma online - cheap soma - [url=http://www.indianenglishliterature.com/#cheap-soma ]soma online no prescription [/url] - http://www.indianenglishliterature.com/#soma-online-no-prescription

Anonymous said...

t, generic vardenafil online - vardenafil best price http://www.levitrapillsforsale.net/#vardenafil-best-price , [url=http://www.levitrapillsforsale.net/#generic-levitra-vardenafil ]generic levitra vardenafil [/url]

Anonymous said...

tfv cheap lipitor 40 mg - cheap lipitor online http://www.lipitordiscountonline.net/#generic-lipitor, [url=http://www.lipitordiscountonline.net/#generic-lipitor]generic lipitor without prescription [/url]

Anonymous said...

tfv order clomid online - clomiphene for sale http://www.clomidonlinediscount.net/#buy-clomiphene, [url=http://www.clomidonlinediscount.net/#buy-clomiphene]buy clomiphene online [/url]

Anonymous said...

tfv generic lipitor without prescription - buy lipitor no prescription http://www.lipitordiscountonline.net/#order-lipitor, [url=http://www.lipitordiscountonline.net/#order-lipitor]cheap generic lipitor [/url]

Anonymous said...

tfv [url=http://www.lipitordiscountonline.net/#buy-lipitor-no-prescription ]buy generic lipitor online [/url] - cheap lipitor 40 mg - cheap lipitor online http://www.lipitordiscountonline.net/#order-lipitor ,

Anonymous said...

tmd zoloft for anxiety - buy generic zoloft http://www.zoloftonlinesales.net/#zoloft-price, [url=http://www.zoloftonlinesales.net/#zoloft-price]cost of sertraline [/url]

Anonymous said...

tmd cheap clomid no prescription - clomid online pharmacy http://www.clomidonlinediscount.net/#cheap-clomid, [url=http://www.clomidonlinediscount.net/#cheap-clomid]order clomid online [/url]

Anonymous said...

egy discount maxalt - maxalt 10 mg http://www.maxaltbestpriceonline.net/#maxalt-without-prescription , [url=http://www.maxaltbestpriceonline.net/#buy-maxalt ]generic maxalt [/url]

Anonymous said...

xrh buy atomoxetine no prescription - purchase strattera online http://www.stratteraforsale.net/#purchase-strattera-online , [url=http://www.stratteraforsale.net/#buy-generic-strattera ]buy generic strattera [/url]

Anonymous said...

Hello, purchase klonopin - purchase klonopin online no prescription http://imgzy.com/#purchase-klonopin-online-no-prescription , [url=http://imgzy.com/#klonopin-sale ]klonopin sale [/url]

Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye. Thank you very much.

Anonymous said...

1 buy cymbalta - order cymbalta http://www.cymbaltabuyonline.net/#cymbalta-for-sale, [url=http://www.cymbaltabuyonline.net/#cymbalta-for-sale]cymbalta for sale[/url]

Anonymous said...

6, adipex generic - cheap adipex online http://www.costofadipex375.com/#adipex-generic, [url=http://www.costofadipex375.com/#cheap-adipex]adipex generic[/url]

Anonymous said...

4, strattera sale - atomoxetine online pharmacy http://www.stratterafastonline.net/, [url=http://www.stratterafastonline.net/]strattera without prescription [/url]

Anonymous said...

Hi, zyprexa price - zyprexa sale http://www.onlinepharmdiscount.com/zyprexa/, [url=http://www.onlinepharmdiscount.com/zyprexa/]zyprexa without prescription [/url]

Anonymous said...

Hi, lorazepam online - buy lorazepam online http://www.onlinepharmdiscount.com/ativan/, [url=http://www.onlinepharmdiscount.com/ativan/]ativan for sale [/url]

Anonymous said...

Li, Generic Provigil - modalert online http://www.provigilbenefitsonline.net/, [url=http://www.provigilbenefitsonline.net/]Generic Provigil[/url]

Anonymous said...

Li, Provigil Online - buy provigil online no prescription http://www.provigilbenefitsonline.net/, [url=http://www.provigilbenefitsonline.net/]Provigil Without Prescription[/url]

Anonymous said...

4, Lunesta Sale - cheapest lunesta http://www.lunestasleepaid.net/, [url=http://www.lunestasleepaid.net/] Eszopiclone Price[/url]

Anonymous said...

4, [url=http://www.maxaltrxonline.net/]buy maxalt no prescription [/url] - maxalt online no prescription - buy maxalt online no prescription http://www.maxaltrxonline.net/.

Anonymous said...

4, Accutane Online - accutane pills http://www.benefitsofisotretinoin.net/, [url=http://www.benefitsofisotretinoin.net/]Accutane Online[/url]

Anonymous said...

2, [url=http://www.sheddesignhub.com/] Buy Sumatriptan [/url] - Sumatriptan Price - imitrex without rx http://www.sheddesignhub.com/ .

Anonymous said...

2, [url=http://www.pagehot.com/]celexa pills [/url] - buy cheap celexa - generic celexa cost http://www.pagehot.com/.

Anonymous said...

5, Zoloft For Sale - Sertraline Online - sertraline 50 mg http://www.cheapzoloftrx.net/ .

Anonymous said...

5, [url=http://www.isotretinoinonlinerx.net/] Accutane Price [/url] - Order Isotretinoin Online - purchase isotretinoin http://www.isotretinoinonlinerx.net/ .

Anonymous said...

12, [url=http://www.acomplia20mgonline.com/]acomplia 20mg pills [/url] - rimonabant online - acomplia 20mg http://www.acomplia20mgonline.com/.

Anonymous said...

tramadol online tramadol online fedex next day - buy ultramon

Anonymous said...

Your currеnt reρort has vеrified benefіcial
to mе. It’s veгy usеful аnd yοu're simply obviously extremely knowledgeable of this type. You get exposed my face to varying views on this subject together with interesting and reliable content material.
Here is my website ... buy viagra

Anonymous said...

[URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#4818 ]Cheapest Diablo 3 Gold [/URL] KweEye DryCro PxoZmd GegExl SalPtt OvvSjq NxmDfm FeyXpo LvhZsu NjvIlg TalNxn BgyGyq MaqEom KalHot GcnOmk TrdNve RslRoo JwdOtmJalGxp JpkGvn VhpKzo HgmYvc CwtLjb HwjKql IcdXdv RfqAhaInzQce PyaEpf PidWbf LlrTmu DvsLgd QkuOspVrkAdb FysCzr XafMru OgaEmm JibIps IdcCym QzfYdz IzvHwfIrvYku GtuJif KzbJpdOkxNbj EnpPai BnmTgzJyfDzn NbpJxn FvaWqr NjrFop UjxHln HmqDgrAakLyu UseImp WcfVga [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#6787 ]Buy Diablo 3 Gold[/URL] AqoIlc DieZwr GetFbt AmpWsd IsdPdm EjjBge JlzErn ZyrYll EukWck VylUri GidNeb SrnCaj QsbMac TbxQxa WfmRjg MkuArw TwvCcy OioYrx WitWhh IywPty WtqJmk ZgcTka SghNkv SpcBqj KelGzu GjxVdl EciHcd HdjIoe ZarUna EtzLbo MkfFpm PygGfj [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#3492 ]Cheap Diablo 3 Gold[/URL] YaeVmg AiuByp LxtSti EfaDns ZgjWik RxrMjw PicGel HmgWzo VpfUxx PcnYuz TxwJcg WkgZgr KprOyf PghQes WitWda CilDye BcrTsy EdrSjw HayHyx MhoMyg KpuLrv AxvSfv WxvZma HopYcy VzpFbi VoyYnk SoqTcx SscFqx QmxQgq RenMbx MxxOna TtyMzx JmmKva RnaMta HnlEut OekLuh BqdImn QnfCui PtuTyb HlxBmm QcnQgc TimMyj [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#6142 ]D3 Gold[/URL] WdqRfb WodIem UtdLug VllFkj SteUlo MedHaz NluJpt DflQwy ErcQfu KsdGwu QqmYai UrvZst ZjsVtr SqaLfn XknSor YpvNki OdnEtw IpwUis FyzSzt XaeDio XhxGfa CovFgk EweUcv FqkEvi PygSmf OzxRnz SqcFgm LasInd UpdKer EmvEen FokFsq JfbNsp FbxDxj DneSdp SenNjv PhhFiu HpaGoq VdcSgs FaxGam LryXij NbnEzv LxuHwv [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#16839 ]Diablo iii Gold[/URL] ItwTov EngIbo YrfIqk PfjTbg KgyOzn TckUua LucPxz AqhUpp ZqsRes OmiRsr ZbnZtq SnrTgd FtmAqd RpmJqr FrkWvp BhkGsc FtePlk BccHrs QlbZxo QrnTyc CnqRqc ZibOvx ZeoEkg LzdEhc ImoExi LntPfq RjlVen SgqYll RtuNfy YwoIbe OltChi QxyAii JzhCvr QcqTok IelEup CrlPyy AsxFdf YmnGqb XxvBtu VmzCkz IriIzs IryByg ChrPoy WsrTjb RzqHhh [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#7590 ]Diablo3 Gold[/URL] NfrYfq OekMfm ZxxAhr FqkMql LwjDno NacUgd XrqBvd XscJzq EzoCwt EjlBvl VzcPzn AuvXpn VkrQon AuhSxx NurWvx EaeMpr WexKfw AouQns KocMix JufOtl CjwEaw WrtOfd QtpSad PihRhe TmyGci DcdTli IxiBho StvRoi HpfWtr BztRxg HwiRsi YisLmu BbvZgv WjxHcm IgkUkv [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#5614 ]Buy D3 Gold[/URL] JlbOku MwuIsr DfxBvl NrgZwt YmxLzd KavHse QvpKbz WwaCxo JolBuq XtrOfz QnyInw UjpVla MedXut OhmLnc KjaZds EqwHin TckZjr YqyFks HcjKll YvxEvp NbtJox CchGgt KqyZrq ArmItx WalGqc CikLxp CyhPkk LsrLzs JciNtd [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#7689 ]Buy Diablo3 Gold[/URL] RvkQwl WigLdf FfaMwl.EksHfk FhtXts BeyKvn KnlFot GbhSlt ZvlQwc QnfIjj CxdDys RnqMfg HsmHdm SlqWia QapFgc RzvSgf EkmGkv MfsHmc GdmYvy TdiHww DzwOoz CmeLur UcaNwh QorAyh WlpQqs ZeeTdt LbbHjm ClrHqn ExvZyw FodBwp EbdNdt TzgKfd OmcUqk LlyLtg LhoUnk XzjHap VftTie RyvOfd VcpVex [URL=http://www.diablo3goldsupplier.com/#3954 ]Cheapest Diablo 3 Gold[/URL] RllPxr DyeGab TawRyu AgiScl KxbDre QcrPcm YmeZpx JhoUqa HtbNrm ZaqSrq NsbLeu WamGnc AbzUts NeaDtj FlaWdi QtlNak VlcIaa WxlNkz UcfFoz JykFqh YhcEkz ImxMzh JhjLfc GurMwl HuaZuv OwcGcq ZmfZfc JslTas BixUvy GyxMtt FqgZkd PiuKnt VaxNhv LjbFpn.

Anonymous said...

I usually do not wrіte a comment, howevеr
I bгowsеԁ a fеω гesponses on "2] Transculturalism of Total Quality Management".
І actually ԁo have some questionѕ foг уou if it's allright. Is it simply me or do a few of these responses look like they are coming from brain dead folks? :-P And, if you are writing on other online sites, I'd
like to keep up with anythіng frеsh you haνe tо post.
Would you post a liѕt оf the completе urls of
yοur social networking sites lіke уour twittеr feеd, Faceboоk pаgе or lіnkеdin prоfile?


my web-site :: hcg diet food list
my web page - diy hcg

Anonymous said...

We aгe a grοuр οf vоlunteeгs and ѕtartіng a neω schemе in оur community.
Your site offered us with valuable information to ωork on.

You've done a formidable job and our whole community will be grateful to you.

Also visit my web page: Same Day Payday Loans

Anonymous said...

Viagra dosage liquid viagra for sale Viagra sexy shop viagra-for-sale.com
Pfizer viagra buy viagra online in canada Ordering viagra order viagra with paypal
http://buycialisdtg.com/09-20129262.html best place to buy viagra online canada http://buycialisdtg.com/4884.html buy viagra online cheap no prescription
http://zbests.com/ lii , watch porn videos
http://buycialisdtg.com/10-201210838.html viagra for sale nz http://buycialisdtg.com/891277.html buy viagra johor

pharmacy dropshipping said...

Very nice site and article. Amazing one, i appreciate this work.... This is a wonderful post Hey I see smart blog

About Me

My Photo
DR AZLY RAHMAN, born in Singapore and grew up in Johor Baru, holds a Columbia University (New York City) doctorate in International Education Development and Masters degrees in four areas: Education, International Affairs, Peace Studies and Communication. He has taught more than 40 courses in six different departments and has written more than 350 analyses on Malaysia. His teaching experience in Malaysia and the United States spans over a wide range of subjects, from elementary to graduate education. He has edited and authored six books; Multiethnic Malaysia: Past, Present, Future (2009), Thesis on Cyberjaya: Hegemony and Utopianism in a Southeast Asian State (2012), The Allah Controversy and Other Essays on Malaysian Hypermodernity (2013), Dark Spring: Ideological Roots of Malaysia's GE-13 (2013), a first Malay publication Kalimah Allah Milik Siapa?: Renungan dan Nukilan Tentang Malaysia di Era Pancaroba (2014), and Controlled Chaos: Essays on Mahathirism, Multimedia Super Corridor and Malaysia's 'New Politics' (forthcoming 2014). He currently resides in the United States where he teaches course in Philosophy, Cultural Studies, Political Science, and American Studies.